Bosnia and Herzegovina
- (FRA): Bosnie - Hérzegovine
- (ENG): Bosnia and Herzegovina
- (GER): Bosnien und Herzegowina
- Surface: 51.129 km2
- Population: 4.354.911 (1991)
- Official languages: Bosnian, Serbian and Croatian
- Official script: Latin and Cyrillic
- Lowest point: Neum, 0 m
- Highest point: Maglić mountain peak, 2386 m
- Coast line: 21.2 km
- Currency: Convertible Mark (KM)
- Call Number: 387
Bosnia and Herzegovina is located in southeastern Europe, in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula. In the north, west and southwest borders with the Republic of Croatian, and in the east and south, Serbia and Montenegro. John saddle Saddle (959 m) between the mountains and Bitovnja Bjelasnica connects two large whole country, inhabited forests and arable land in northern Bosnia richer and smaller, rocky Herzegovina in the south.
Extremely natural border between Bosnia and Herzegovina makes mountain range crow - Raduša - Vranica - Bitovnja - Bjelasnica - Treskavica - Diplomat - Maglic. Herzegovina engages about 20% of the area and it has only 10% of the population of the state. Near the mouth of the Neretva River, in front of Mali Ston channel, Bosnia and Herzegovina has a small outlet to the sea, (21.2 km long coastline at Neum).
Bosnia and Herzegovina is among former Yugoslav republics, the third area and population (behind the Serbian and Croatian), and high density (behind Serbia and Slovenia).
Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of four large geographic entities. Central Bosnia (12 920 km2, 1.249 million people) intervention mountainous area, it is the most developed part of the country where the ancient times are the focus of the territorial assembly of neighboring Pannonian, Karst, and sub-Mediterranean regions. From the late nineteenth century distribution of population has changed and today the majority of the population lives in Bosnia Peripanonskoj (21 622 km2, 2.253 million people), which is the most valuable part of the agricultural state, but overpopulated agrarian region. Bosnian high debris (11 842 km2 and 325 000 inhabitants) encompasses the mountainous karst area of western Bosnia and Herzegovina, it is the most populated and poorest part of the country - only 9% of the area is arable, and in the cities live less than 30% of the population. Mediterranean region, the so-called. Low Herzegovina (5399 km2 and 296 000 inhabitants) is the smallest geographical entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina and to the middle coastal area of Zagorje. Relief of Bosnia and Herzegovina is mostly hilly and mountainous, and only 8% of the country lies below 150 meters above sea level.
Most of Bosnia and Herzegovina belongs to the Black Sea hydrographic basin, basin or river basin. Sava receives its largest tributary, just from Bosnia (214 km Una, Vrbas, 240 km, 271 km, Bosnia, Drina 346 km). Smaller, draining the area of Herzegovina to the Adriatic Sea and is the largest river Neretva (218 km), which is the largest tributary of the Adriatic Sea from the territory of former Yugoslavia (SFRY).
In Herzegovina is the largest gulf in the former Yugoslavia, River and that most of the water obtained from regions that are among the richest rainfall regions of Europe.
Bosnia and Herzegovina has no major natural lakes, most notably Pliva Lakes near Jajce and Blidinje and Veteran lake. Greater significance are artificial reservoirs, in order to exploit hydroenergetic (Districts, and Perućaćko Bileća Lake), and for the supply of industrial water (lake,). Former Busko mud at the foot of Dinara construction of dams turned out periodic karst ujezerenja in a large artificial reservoir of water.
Zapadnobosanska and Herzegovina karst fields are periodically flooded areas, and some are now dried up or turned into artificial reservoirs, which serve the exploitation of hydropower and irrigation of arable land. The specificity seems Hutovo mud at the bottom of the Neretva, swamp area that is covered by high water from 1 to 1.5 meters deep water. It is rich in fish and rare birds, winter is long retained flocks of wild ducks and geese, and owns and ornithological station.